

How to Read the
CIRP Construct Mean Reports 























CIRP Construct Definition – Summarizes the
theoretical rationale for creating the construct.
Standard Deviation
– Measures the variability around the mean. A small standard deviation
indicates that the responses for the construct tend to be very close to the
mean, whereas a large standard deviation indicates that the responses are
spread over a larger range of response options. 


CIRP
Constructs are designed to capture the experiences and outcomes institutions
are often interested in understanding, but that present a measurement
challenge because of their complex and multifaceted nature. To measure these
broad underlying areas more precisely, we use Item Response Theory (IRT) to
combine individual survey items into global measures that capture these
areas. CIRP Constructs are more than a summation of related items; IRT uses
response patterns to derive construct score estimates while simultaneously
giving greater weight in the estimation process to survey items that tap into
the construct more directly. This results in more accurate construct scores.
Constructs are particularly useful for benchmarking. They allow you to
determine if the experiences and outcomes for your students differ from your
comparison groups. Two sets of reports are generated for CIRP Constructs. The
Mean Report shows comparative information based on the mean score of a
construct. The Percentage Report shows comparative information based on the
percentage of students who score in the high, average, and low score group of
a construct. We suggest you use the report that best fits your needs as an
institution. 

Comp 1 – The first comparison group is based on your
institution's type and control.
Comp 2 – The second
comparison group is based on a similar grouping of institution type and
control.
Mean – The arithmetic
mean is computed for each CIRP Construct based on the construct score. CIRP
constructs have been scaled to a population mean of 50 with a standard
deviation of 10.
Effect Size – Determines the practical
significance of the mean difference between your institution and the
comparison group. It is calculated by dividing the mean difference by the
standard deviation of the comparison group. Generally, an effect size of .2
is considered small, .5 medium, and .8 large. A positive sign indicates that
your institution’s mean is greater than the mean of the comparison group; a
negative sign indicates your mean is smaller than the mean of the comparison
group. Note that a negative effect size is sometimes preferred (e.g., a
negative effect size on the "Academic Disengagement" CIRP Construct
suggests your students score lower than comparison schools). 



















Academic
SelfConcept is a unified measure of students’ beliefs
about their abilities and confidence in academic environments. 





















Total 
Men 
Women 





Sample University 
Your Inst 
Comp 1 
Comp 2 
Your Inst 
Comp 1 
Comp 2 
Your Inst 
Comp 1 
Comp 2 





Total (n) 
1,367 
5,029 
14,906 
506 
1,603 
5,572 
861 
3,426 
9,334 





Mean 
51.6 
50.1 
50.3 
53.8 
51.8 
51.7 
50.3 
49.2 






Standard deviation 
7.92 
7.86 
7.84 
8.49 
8.29 
8.22 
7.25 
7.51 
7.50 





Significance 
 
*** 
*** 
 
*** 
*** 
 
*** 
** 





Effect size 
 
0.19 
0.16 
 
0.24 
0.26 
 
0.14 






25th percentile 
45.4 
45.1 
45.4 
48.4 
45.4 
45.4 
45.4 
44.3 
45.0 





75th percentile 
57.6 
55.0 
55.0 
58.3 
58.3 
58.3 
55.0 
54.4 
54.4 




Statistical Significance – Uses ttest to
examine the difference between the mean construct score for your institution
and the comparison group. Constructs with mean differences that are larger
than would be expected by chance are noted with one, two, or three stars,
which correspond to the three standard levels of significance (*p< .05,
**p< .01, and ***p< .001). Statistical significance measures the extent
to which a difference is occurring by chance, not the extent to which a
difference is important. Large sample sizes (like those in the comparison
groups) tend to generate statistical significance even though the magnitude
of the difference may be small and not practically significant. In order to
provide additional context to statistical significance, effect sizes are
provided. 

Note: Significance *
p<.05, ** p<.01, *** p<.001 




































































































































































































































































Survey items and
estimation "weights":
Rate yourself on each of the
following traits as compared with the average person your age: 
For more information about IRT and the CIRP Construct
development process, see the CIRP Constructs Technical Report at
www.heri.ucla.edu 





* Academic ability
(3.01) 





* Selfconfidence
(intellectual) (1.51) 





* Drive to achieve
(1.18) 





* Mathematical
ability (1.14) 





Survey Items and Estimation "Weights" – The
survey items used in the creation of the CIRP Construct are presented in the
order in which they contribute to the construct along with the estimation
weights generated in IRT. Items that tap into a trait more effectively are
given greater weight in the estimation process. 
Charts – Provide a visual display of relevant construct
scores for your institution and two comparison groups. The Y axis is defined
by the highest and lowest possible construct score. Mean scores are
represented by circles. The numbers at the top and bottom of the vertical
line are values for the 75th and 25th percentile. 























































